By Valeria Bello, Belachew Gebrewold
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Additional info for A Global Security Triangle: European, African and Asian Interaction (Routledge GARNET series: Europe in the World)
By contrast, in West Africa, where monetary integration modelled on the European experience has been considered, the countries have gone some way to create the supranational monetary institutions that will replace the national central banks, introducing convergence criteria and co-ordination of The promotion of regional integration 25 macroeconomic policies as part of the phased introduction of a single currency. However, the West African countries still do not have the level of real economic integration, measured in the density of trade patterns and capital flows, to allow the economies to support a single monetary policy and to withstand the pressures of an asymmetrical currency union arrangement (Kenen and Meade 2007).
But the use of conditionality in 20 M. Farrell the enlargement process served also to enforce the EU rules and to shape the institutions in the applicant states. Conditionality was coercive, securing compliance with the policy outcome and with the Commission’s highly politicised demands that the individual applicant states adopt the full array of rules, regulations, standards and policies in the acquis communautaire. Second, the EU can and has been able to influence regional integration in a broad and general way through normative suasion, where other regional communities adopt certain practices, institutional arrangements, or other forms of governance modelled on the European regional governance system (Acharya and Johnston 2007).
Though motivated by market access considerations, trade clauses are now accompanied by provisions on competition rules, product standards, environmental protection rules, and intellectual property rights, leading some analysts to see in these developments the export of the European model of governance (Lavenex 2008). The enlargement of the EU does indeed constitute a case of exporting European governance, and the conditionality clauses attached to accession negotiations (including the requirement on meeting the acquis communautaire) imposed an absolute requirement on the new member states to adopt the European regulatory and legal order.
A Global Security Triangle: European, African and Asian Interaction (Routledge GARNET series: Europe in the World) by Valeria Bello, Belachew Gebrewold